Monday, December 5, 2011

Ingrid Michaelson & Old Navy: Music Meets Advertisements

When I think about the incorporation of music into advertisements and the sharp increase of this practice that has occurred in the past few years, I automatically am reminded of the Old Navy ad a few years back that featured Ingrid Michaelson’s “The Way I Am.” It was the first time, to my recollection, that I found a song that I enjoyed through a means of which I despise: TV commercials. Since then, musicians have continued to license their music for use in various advertisements and the question still remains: why do it?

Keeping the industrialization of culture approach in mind, it is easy to develop a greater understanding of why this practice has been so prominent in the past few years. Commercial mandates and distribution-exhibition practices are two of the elements of this model that seem particularly involved in the example of music incorporation into advertisements. The ultimate goal of advertisements is clear to everybody: to sell products. So why incorporate a cover of a song by Ingrid Michaelson into an advertisement to sell Old Navy sweaters? Firstly, it makes watching commercials more bearable. If people are clearly interested in the song that is playing during this commercial, the image associated with that song will resonate and the commercial will ultimately be a hit. The more air time it receives, the more people will see the commercial, and the more sweaters will sell. Strategically, incorporating music into advertisements is a smart move for companies. It helps to fulfill the commercial mandates set forth by corporations.

On the other hand, distribution-exhibition practices are executed on behalf of the musician: without having to do much work, Ingrid Michaelson’s voice and beat was sold to the majority of the United States. Her song instantly was recognizable once it hit radio stations and that was due in part to the part that Old Navy had played in distributing her music. This model is one that is effective for both the musicians and the advertisers: musicians essentially gain free marketing whereas advertisers are able to capture the audience’s attention through the use of work that is not theirs, but rather something that has been borrowed from somebody else.   

The Connection between Music and Advertising

There have been an overwhelmingly increasing amount of technological advancements within the last 15 to 20 years, and it has caused all sectors of the media industry to adapt to these changing times. Piracy is at an all time high right now, and no one seems to have the right solution for this problem. The music industry has been hit incredibly hard by piracy and is losing tons of money. One way to get back some of this money is through licensing their music through advertisements. Not only do the musicians get some money, but they also get exposure. People watching an advertisement that has a song in the background will likely remember the song along with the advertisements.
I think that association comes into play here, by connecting the song with an advertisement or an advertisement with the song; whenever they see or hear either of them the other one will be associated with it. The advertising industry is also facing a very competitive time, where money is very tight. They have to come up with good advertisements for the product they are working with so that it sticks out from other advertisements. One way to do this is to connect your advertisement with a popular song and artist. The most important issue for both of these media industries is adapting to the technological shifts of the 21st century.

Commercial Mandates and Innovative Distribution for AMC's "The Walking Dead"

The Gateway Film Center in Columbus shows AMC's The Walking Dead on their big screen for a commercial mandate. The three party system of the producer, the advertiser, and the consumer each offer something to another. The producers and the advertisers are giving the content to the consumer for their attentive "eyeballs." The content on the screen is already paid for by the advertiser and by putting it in the movie theater, the advertisers are guaranteed each person watching The Walking Dead to sit through every commercial because they can't change the channel. Even though it won't be recorded by the Nielsen Company, chances are it wasn't going to be recorded by them anyway, since the Nielsen survey size is actually quite small anyway.

Also, AMC's The Walking Dead is played in the theater in Columbus because it is an innovative strategy of distribution. It places the viewer into a movie theater experience which encourages them to watch the programming as well as buy food and beverage from the movie theater. The movie their is providing free admission to the viewers in hope that they buy a ticket to another movie and/or spend their money on popcorn and refreshments. This strategy is a win-win situation for all three party members. The advertisers are getting their guaranteed eyeballs to watch each commercial. The AMC is paid for the content by the advertisers. The consumers are getting their favorite TV content. And the movie theater is reaching viewers and gaining an audience in hope that consumers by other movie tickets and refreshments.

Music in Advertising

Our constantly evolving media driven society is now implementing popular songs into mainstream TV commercials. As we have discusses in class, this is just another example of how different forms of media and technology are overlapping and becoming a part of one another. This not only benefits the product that is being advertised but also the artist featured in the advertisement. The ads become personal and memorable for the audience and therefore they are more prone to remember the song in correlation to the product it is representing. A few examples of popular songs in ads are:

These are ads that I personally have seen, remembered, and wondered: “What is the name of the song from that commercial?” This is exactly the point of this strategy. As a consumer I remembered the product featured in the commercial and downloaded the song featured in the commercial. This is an example of a commercial mandate. The goal of this media is to create profit for the product and the chosen artist. Profit for the product and the artist are interconnected. A popular song from a popular artist is more likely to catch the attention of the audience. Songs are picked specifically depending on the product and the audience in which it is targeting. This also translates into the relationship between economic and technological mandates. In my opinion adding popular songs to commercials is a new development in technology which leads to an increase in economic capital and profit.

Musicians Partnership with Advertisers

There has been a notable increase of musicians licensing their music for use in the advertisement industry. This increase is most prevalent in the daily commercials that we see on TV. For example, Snoop Dog’s music is featured in a Sundrop soda commercial, music from Chris Brown is featured in a Doublemint gum commercial and Rihanna’s music is featured in a Nivea skin care commercial to name a few (click links to view commercials).

The ability for musicians to use their creative works for advertising products allows them to reach a targeted audience, as well as a way of marketing themselves. For example, Nivea is a very popular skin care line and when consumers of Nivea here Rihanna’s music in the background, this might spark their interest in Rihanna’s music. Also anyone who is a fan of Rihanna's that does not use Nivea, will be more likely to buy Nivea products in the future. The musicians work does not only benefit the artist but it also benefits the sales of the product. Implementing music in the backdrop of commercials is a creative way to increase both music and product sales. This creative practice in particular can also have a negative effect on the product. For example, during the Chris Brown and Rihanna scandal, the Doublemint contract with Chris Brown was canceled because of the legal situations. Wrigley’s feared that their product sales would decrease because it was associated with Chris Brown.

Moreover, artist turn to licensing their music for use in the advertisement industry as a new source of profit/ income. The music industry as a whole has taken an economic down fall due to technological advances including the ability to pirate and peer share music. Both the artist and the label are loosing economically thus they are forced to find ways to make profit. In this case they make money from the advertisers. In all the musicians partnership with advertisers has become succesfull.

Sunday, December 4, 2011

A Partnership Destined for Success

Music is a media industry that has experienced a significant amount of change over the past ten years. With this change has come the creativity of musicians to get their songs out to the public and hope for a large enough ‘buzz’ to generate revenue (the ultimate goal). Thus the economic condition and desire to sell songs has lead musicians to creating partnerships with advertisers. Through licensing music to advertisers, musicians are able to make a profit off select songs and advertisers are able to have a ‘catchy’ tune to help attract viewers to watch their commercial.

This partnership is incredibly useful for both parties and helps with the exhibition and distribution practices for both the advertisers goods and the musician’s music. Especially because with audiences ability to fast forward through commericals, pressure rises for advertisers to create attractive commericals. Popular music helps to catch the attention of the audience. Additionally, the two work together to create a commercial with music appropriate for the target audience/consumer in hopes of both the product and music being purchased. Finally, this partnership helps musicians enter further into the television industry, developing a new form of distribution.

The Walking Dead: Exposure and Ratings

AMC decided to allow Gateway to screen The Walking Dead on a weekly basis for a variety of reasons. As we have discussed this year, the concept of distribution is a tricky one these days and the promotion of television shows is becoming difficult. Networks need to think of different ways to promote their shows and promote them in a more effective manner than the competition. This example is a technique used by AMC to spread the shows popularity, and expand availability to a larger audience. Although it may not contribute to the series’ ratings, it promotes the show in different ways. More people are likely to attend the viewings and then follow the show later as the series progresses. It grabs the attention of a larger audience, and this larger audience then becomes attuned to keep following the shows progression. This larger audience is also inclined to then promote the show to family and friends, and the show is networked this way.

AMC attracts a larger audience and fan following for the show, and Gateway is able to make money off this promotional strategy. Considering The Walking Dead is the only show available at the screenings, people are forced to invest their attention towards this show and this show alone. It gives the show an advantage over other shows where these screenings are not possible. The increase of the shows popularity in turn is reflected on future ratings and the shows ratings are likely to increase. For this reason, AMC decided it would be profitable and intelligent for these screenings to happen, and I’m sure Gateway was in no opposition to AMC suggestion to do so.

Bringing the Living to the Walking Dead

AMC's commercial mandate is to make money by having the largest audience to their material and to get as many people to include AMC as part of their cable subscription package. This mandate is fulfilled by the use of this practice. By having the Gateway Film Center play AMC's The Walking Dead they are fulfilling this mandate by opening their content to even a larger audience than just AMC cable buyers. By giving people access who wouldn't necessarily have access at home, AMC has increased its chances to have potential new customers and viewers. AMC is known for having unusual shows, like Breaking Bad, and is usually viewed by smaller niche audiences than the larger audiences of broadcast TV. AMC is using this new technique of free views to increase that niche audience and making them aware of the type of content that can be available to them if they choose to have AMC in their cable subscription. Their is also the power of word of mouth and a community that is formed after seeing the show together. This gives free marketing and popularity to the show that continues to fulfill its commercial mandate

This technique also has a huge impact on the exhibition and distribution practices. The Walking Dead is played not only on AMC but also on Netflix. AMC has already been changing their practices by making their material available online. By having the show available on a movie theater screen. This is a whole new way of viewing the film, in a whole new location. This completely changes the show's traditional distribution practices and opens up a whole new way to view TV. By having the show online, on TV, in a movie theater, and later on DVD, AMC is covering all of their bases for distribution and exhibition, thereby increasing all chances of the show being a success and getting AMC's brand out to larger audiences.

Showing the TV show for free at a whole new place of exhibition for television not only fulfills the commercial mandate of AMC but also modernizes their exhibition and distribution practices.

Monday, November 28, 2011

Post-Fordism and the Family

It can be said culture, society, and economy are guiding forces in the creation of media, but it can also be said that media can act as a reality check for each of these three factors as well. One particular era that we can use as a starting point is that of the era of Ford, or Fordism. When considering the period of time in which Fordism was booming, media texts were relatively plain and simple, as well as uniform across the board. In terms of radio sets, each radio maintained the same level of frequency, regulated by the FCC, and the programs that were heard across the nation tended to focus upon the same subjects. Regarding television programming that came into the latter section of the era of Ford, let’s observe shows such as The Donna Reed Show (1958-1966) and The Brady Bunch (1969-1974). These shows presented what, for the era, were considered to be regular families. They presented the audience with the “norm.” Such programming directly reflected the industry that was prevalent at the time.

Now, during a post-Fordist industrial time, individuality and originality is emphasized as what is important and desirable. Ideas carry a higher value than do material objects and even our material possessions aspire to appear to be creative and unique. The idea of “edge” is one that is quintessentially post-Fordist in that edgy content accomplishes the task of being original, ballsy, and interesting. Much like how The Donna Reed Show was able to represent a typical family of the era of Ford, now particular television shows are striving to represent what is the modern family… literally.

One of the most likable and popular TV shows these days is Modern Family as it emphasizes the quirks and complexities of what it means to maintain a familial unit. Although Modern Family is widely accepted as safe, family-approved content, there are certain aspects of the show that can categorize the show as “edgy.” Cam and Mitchell, gay partners who have recently adopted a baby from Vietnam, make up the controversial section of the show as there have been various religious groups that have protested the glorification and permissibility of homosexuality. For many, Cam and Mitchell are viewed as simply part of a family that has its problems and not the factor that contributes to the show’s “modernity.” This demographic is surely who the show is targeted towards as well as those who don’t even take into consideration the fact that the show can, in fact, be considered “edgy.” For the homophobes out there who upload videos onto YouTube regarding the show’s “unacceptable nature,” the show’s edge is simply unforgivable.

Personally, I consider “edge” to be defined by one’s own values as opposed to one’s tastes. Shows such as Friends do not demonstrate questionable morals or controversial content (unless young children overhear risqué conversations between Joey and Chandler), yet the show does not necessarily have an edge. Just because a show does not appeal to one’s particular tastes does not make the show edgy. Edge seems to be characterized by stomach-strength and moral fiber. 

The Edge of Louie

When we think of something edgy, we think of something that is distinct. It has its own uniqueness, and while it may be comparable to other things, it has its own flavor. When looking at the most edgy media texts, people either love them or hate them. In this sense, edgy media texts often have a very focused, sometimes narrow, audience.

Cable television channels seem to be more welcoming to edgy programming than broadcast channels, simply because of the necessity of broadcast networks to gather a larger audience. It seems that most broadcast networks stick to the least edgy programming that they can find in order to attract the greatest audience possible. Many advertisers love edgy programming, because the demographic is well-known and focused to a certain type of people. Advertisers know that they won't be wasting their money.

One of the most edgy channels on television, in my opinion, is FX. Many of FX's prime time shows are created for niche audiences and have loyal followers. Examples of FX's edgy programming include Always Sunny in Philadelphia, The League, Louie, and Wilfred. The specific example that I am going to talk about is Louie. Louie is a show based on the life of a comedian, Louie C.K. The show basically goes into awkward and strange situations and Louie pokes fun at those situations. What makes this program edgy is the sarcastic and depressing tone to the entire series, which can make some people laugh and make some people change the channel.

Edge and Media Demographics

After reading Havens and Lotz it is clear that "edge" can be found throughout many media industries. They discuss "edge" as being media texts or genres which can clearly establish taste boundaries between different demographic groups. Using this definition of "edgy" one type of media jumps out at me, this form of media would be music. Music has many different genres but there is typically one clear demographic audience for each genre of music. This is for a few different reasons.

In the music industry there are many different genres which are usually aimed at reaching a particular audience, so the definition Havens and Lotz gives could be applied directly to this example. Different musics can be aimed directly at reaching a certain audience for a few reasons. The first way music is able to do this is by writing songs which can relate directly to the audience. Lyrics can be about topics which people within the target audience can connect with. This can be said about any type of music Rap or country music for examples connect with their audiences in this sense. For example country music more easily relates with people coming from a more rural demographic; rap music would reach a more urban audience. This is due simply to the ideas which a reflected in the music. Music industries also have age demographics, older people like different types of music than younger audiences. So music would be one type of media which depending on the genre can really be enjoyed by a certain type of audience or demographic.

Twilight is Edgy?

Curtin's article did a great job explaining how the media industry as a whole has had to shift from one focused on mass-media entertainment, to one that must acknowledge and cater to the distinctive needs of various audience groups. The concept of "edge" is crucial to understand in this shift; in Havens & Lotz' definition of the word, edge is what defines the demographic that the text is aiming to reach.

With this context in mind, "edge" in relation to content seems to refer to the distinctive features of a particular text that separate it from all other texts of similar genre and define it as belonging to a certain group or audience. Edge is the content that it is tailored to provoke identification or emotion in an audience - and it can be "edgy" because it won't provoke the same feelings from every person that comes across it, especially if the text is consumed across the boundaries of the producer's perceived audience groups. On page 197, Curtin discusses the culture industry's goal of "striving for broad exposure through multiple circuits of information and expression." These individual circuits are the unique and creative edge added to particular shows in order to "establish clear taste boundaries" that Havens and Lotz speak of.

Throughout this article, I thought of the Twilight series books and movies as an example of a media text that can be considered "edgy" by this definition. It has more than a clear target audience - every text must at least have that. However, this story line has a more unique identifying trait in a strong female protagonist who is meshed with a popular fantasy love story. These books were a gateway to an entire genre of vampire fiction, proving that an audience did in fact exist to consume this type of media. In the context of media production, Twilight certainly has an "edge," in that it discovered new boundaries of audience demographics and played on those to create both an immensely popular text and genre.

“Reed between the Lines” has Edge

“Reed between the Lines” is a relatively new television series which premiered on BET (Black Entertainment Television) that has “edge”. The show aired on a network that caters to African Americans and it is also directed, produced, and cast predominantly by African Americans. The content shown, including humor and racial issues that appear in the series is targeted to and understood by one demographic. “Reed between the Lines” has the ability to appeal and be accepted by one demographic or audience which gives it an “edge”.

The series itself is a comedy that follows a middle class African American family through the ups and downs of life. Generally speaking the series breaks many common stereotypes associated with African American families today. For example, the family lives in a very stable household with both parents present; the mother is a psychologist and the father is a stay at home dad who home-schools their children.

There are very few shows targeting African Americans that do not that portray the stereotype of the broken family living in a lower-class. I believe “Reed between the Lines” appeals to African Americans as a whole. It provides a lifestyle that the majority of African Americans are not exposed to thus it serves as something to work towards. “Reed between the Lines” also appeals to the middle and upper class African Americans because they can relate to the lifestyle and characters.

Sunday, November 27, 2011

The Edginess of Daniel Tosh

While reading the section about having edge the show that continually popped into my mind was Tosh.O. If there was ever a show that had edge it is this one. The idea of a show having edge is a show that has a niche audience, which means that a very select group of people that will watch it instead of a mass audience. This is great for advertisers because they are able to play very specific ads during these shows and almost all of them will accurately target the audience.

So why does Tosh.O have edge? When you think about it, it should play to a very broad audience. Daniel Tosh takes funny Youtube clips and makes jokes about them while they play for the in-studio audience. However, Tosh (or at least the character he portrays during his stand-up and his show) is unbelievably racist, sexist, homophobic, and misogynistic. As long as you take his jokes with a grain of salt (and even then it is sometimes not enough), then his jokes are funny, but not everyone understands that. This means that he has a very select audience, which Havens and Lotz call a pure demographic, gives Tosh.O serious edge.

Thursday, November 10, 2011

Finding the "experience" in going to the movies

Our visit to the movie theaters allowed us to see two very different operating styles of the distributors. Both made it clear from the start that they wanted to differentiae themselves from the larger competition. I found that Studio 35 succeeded in doing so, while The Arena Grand fell short. The Arena Grand is an independent movie theater, but felt identical to an AMC, just with less movies playing. They offer specialty items in their bistro restaurant including drinks. Yet this “bistro” stunk of popcorn, so who would want to eat there and the drinks were way over priced. Going to a movie is expensive enough and while distributors make most of their money off concessions, I think in this case they were a little greedy. The hardest pill for them to swallow is the digitization of the film industry. In was clear that the company is worried about the costs that come with the new technology and are unsure if all their theaters will be prepared for the new form of film.

Studio 35 was awesome. It punctuates what Drake was trying to prove; that in a stagnate industry one must make an attempt to stand out in new ways. The bar looked like a place my Grandpa would drink and a great selection of microbrews. At the lower ticket prices customers are more willing to buy drinks. That works for them because that is clearly their main revenue stream. The seats were in a bowl, which I had never seen before. Everything there stuck me as original, and I cannot wait to go check it out again. I hate going to the movies and spending all that money on a sub-par film, but in the case of Studio 35 I am paying for an experience. Also you can order pizza and they will deliver it to you while you’re watching the move.

One thing the two theaters shared in common was their willingness to bend the rules. People don’t go to the movies like they used to, so the industry had to find new ways of creating revenue streams. The Arena Grand pockets all the cash from a private showing citing that they were just renting out the pace and not selling tickets. Studio 35 shows the Buckeye games even though they have received cease and desist orders. They need to show these games in order to cover their operating costs because they do not make enough of movies alone. Due to increased distribution costs and piracy these distributors have attempted to come up with unique and sometimes not always legal idea to attract customers. Patrons want a viewing experience that does not solely revolve around the film. Distributors who meet the needs of their specific clientele will be the ones still successful in the industry.

Monday, November 7, 2011

The Experience of the Movie Theatres

As the reading said, movies theaters need to differentiate themselves from viewing movies at home. Technology has began to make this more difficult for theaters to do, so the theater will depend more on building an experience around the movie than simply offering a new movie. These days people can see movies through many different avenues almost immediately after they are released and very often for free. Depending on if the way the view the movie is illegal or not. The theaters we are visiting seem to have taken two different approaches to building an experience for the consumers. This experience has to completely make up for the high costs of the movie at the theaters since consumers can see the same basic movie at home for free. Therefore the consumers are basically paying for the experience itself, not simply the movie content.

Looking at the websites for the two theaters it is clear these two theaters Arena Grand and Studio 35 have taken two different approaches when attempting to build this experience. Arena Grand seems to be the more mainstream theater as it offers a wide variety of movies at many different times. These movies are also the more recently released movies which continues to draw in new consumers. This is also one of the most popular theater in Columbus. The other theater has had to go about building this experience in a completely different way due to the size of the theater. So Studio 35 builds this experience by providing different opportunities for the consumers. They do not have the variety of movies so consumers don't have that choice. However, Studio 35 draws people in because it is connected to a drafthouse, so consumers are able to drink while they view the movies. This is a completely different experience than most theaters these days. Studio 35 also shows older movies such as Office Space which is clearly offering something different than the other theaters who are worried about always having the most up-to-date movies.

A Trip to the Movies: An Experience

Nowadays with the technology that makes watching a movie from your couch easier than going anywhere else, movie theaters must differentiate their product by creating an experience, and not just a movie. The physical film can be watched in a number of different ways: online, on demand, illegally, or through a gaming system. Theaters have to deal with this problem today more than ever before with the changing technology and the consumers desire for immediate content. In order to deal with these phenomena, movie theaters have created more than just a movie, but an experience that is worth just as much to the consumers as seeing the film itself. Studio 35 and Arena Grand have done this in their own unique ways.

Studio 35, the oldest independent movie theater in Columbus, has coupled its business to be a theater as well as a drafthouse. This unique combination will attract a whole different audience that may not go to ordinary theaters, but choose this one for their beer tastings and interesting brews. Also, this theater re-shows popular shows that consumers have fallen in love with, for example Office Space is being shown this week during a beer tasting, so people can see a movie they love and try out a few different beers. Arena Grand has also created an experience different than normal movie theaters with a wider range of food at their bistro. Typically you can get popcorn, candy, and a soda at a movie theater, but not Arena Grand. You can get a full meal at their bistro that serves wraps, subs, salads and more. Aside from the food, Arena Grand also offers space for meetings and private screenings, a service not provided by most theaters. In the end, creating an experience that is more than just a movie is the best way for these theaters to make the greatest profit and keep consumers coming back again and again.

More than just a movie

Going to the movie has returned to being an “outing”. This change from quickly seeing a film has become an “outing” and viewers are looking for the full experience. With ticket prices higher than ever and over priced concession stand food; you can’t go to a movie without spending a good amount of money. For this reason movies and especially theatres are being looked at to provide a full experience (Drake, 64). Arena Grand Movie Theatre has transformed the experience of seeing a movie by introducing a Bistro and Bar, full of gourmet foods, beer, and wine. They promise that your “experience” will be one of pleasure and relaxation. Offering the Bistro to movie and non movie goers.

Studio 35 has taken a different approach with consumers, offering various specials to accompany their movie. For example on Sunday, November 6 they are offering a beer tasting and movie special, featuring Office Space. While both of these theatres have taken different approaches at transforming the movie theatre into an experience, they are both aiming at the same concept, creating a place where consumers want to watch a movie. Movies have become so easily accessed at home that the draw to pay for over prices movie tickets and concessions has become less and less appealing. For this reason it is the job of the movie theatres to create that one of a kind experience that competes with the comfort of ones couch and home.

Movie Theater as an Experience

Researching the two websites of the movie theaters, Arena Grand and Studio 35, reiterated the Drake reading about how going to the movies has become more of an experience. What I said in my previous post completely applies to these two theaters. Because of the price and distance, movie theaters are forced to offer more than just a movie and popcorn to entice audience members to pay to see movies in a theater. These two movie theaters have taken interesting approaches to keeping ticket sales up. The Arena Grand theater is the more mainstream of the two. It offers a wide variety of up to date movies and was voted "Best Theater" in Columbus. What entices audiences is the Bistro/Bar they have at the theater. The Bistro does not have your typical movie theater food but rather more gourmet options. Audience members can not only snack during the movies but they can do dinner and a movie all in one place. And for those of age, the Arena Grand has a bar for movie goers.

Studio 35 deems itself as a "Cinema and Drafthouse". This is an interesting take on a movie theater because on certain nights they offer beer tasting and a movie. This more independent theater is reaching out to a specific consumer group. These two theaters, although different in size and movie selection, have completely complied to the idea that going to the movies is about creating an experience for audiences. Because people can easily stay in the comfort of their homes for movie viewing, it is pertinent that movie theaters offer something unique; something that is only available at their theater. I think it would be interesting to hear from representatives at each theater to see if these added bonuses have increased sales at the theater and if they are worried for the future of the movie theater as an institution.

Tuesday, November 1, 2011

Utilizing Hugh Jackman for Publicity

Drake defines publicity as media coverage for which no payment by the studio is made. While a member of the marketing department essentially, it functions at a very different frequency. Instead of being handed budgets and creating campaigns, publicity looks to utilize the talent of their movie through media use. Interestingly, Drake notes that reviews, television appearances, and interviews do not usually involve a direct payment to the media, and therefore may be more trusted by audiences. Trailers, and ads for movies are clearly attempting to spin and sell something to the consumer, but a late night interview with the star in which the movie is not the sole topic can spark peoples interest in a unique way.

Real Steel starring Hugh Jackman, took full advantage of its ability to utilize film publicity. With an estimated budget of eighty million dollars, turning a profit for this action oriented film based around the simplistic theme of robot boxing seemed imperative. While the marketing campaign was certainly high budget, a similarly strong publicity campaign was happening. Hugh Jackman was pushed as the loveable character who brought depth and importance to a movie revolving around robots boxing. Jackman appeared on most late night television shows, including The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, Jay Leno, and Conan O’brien. During interviews Jackman clearly was attempting to show that this film had heart, and while very Hollywood in its nature, it contained some layers. His attempts seemed valiant, he was charming, friendly, and very optimistic about the movie.

Despite excellent differential promotion efforts from Jackson and the publicity team to create a dichotomy of messages from the trailers, the film still has not grossed enough to make a profit. Currently at approximately 66 million dollars, the film had a strong opening weekend but has cooled off sense. Much of this may be due to mixed reviews and not the strong publicity campaign which utilized the television media incredibly well.